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The Continued Rise Of The Industry
To 1913


1894 - Page 2

Contractors Summoned And Fined

On 1st February 1894 ninety two contractors of the Stanton Ironworks Co were summoned at Mansfield Police Court for refusing to work on Saturday, 20th January. They lost their case and were fined 6d (2½p) damages and 3s 6d (17½p) costs. 39 Butterley Company employees were similarly fined.


Royalties for Lord Middleton at the Wollaton colliery reached £3,110 10s 0d (£3,110.50) for the half year to Lady Day 1894, with income tax at 7% from 25 acres 0 roods and 14 perches of Deep Soft and 13 acres 3 roods and 7 perches of Deep Hard coal, both @ £80 per acre. For the second half year to Michaelmas (29th September) 1894 there was a further £2,388 0s 0d (£2,388.00) royalty with income tax at 8% from 20 acres 3 roods 37 perches of Deep Soft and 8 acres 3 roods 19 perches of Deep Hard coal. George Lewis, Surveyor of Derby produced the figures.

Albert Colliery

At Albert colliery, (Derbyshire Silkstone Coal Co Ltd) (North Derbyshire) under lease from Sheepbridge Coal and Iron Co, the Duke of Devonshire and others, the following details were outlined:-
Agent was Edmund Taylor and Manager T Fisher. There were 2 shafts, No1 164 yards (150m) deep at 11ft 6in dia (3.5m) and No2 168 yards (153m) at 13 ft dia (3.96m), both in 9” (0.23m) brickwork and sunk 1864-1865. Deep Hard seam 2’ 0” (0.61m) at 52½ yards (48m), Piper 2’ 9” (0.84m) at 77⅔ yards (71m), Dogtooth 9” (0.23m) at 79⅔ yards (73m), Tupton 2’ 0” (0.61m) at 109 yards (100m), Tupton Threequarters 1’ 10” (0.56m) at 122 yards (112m) and Silkstone 5’ 7” (1.70m) at 162⅔ yards (149m). Water feeder at 18 yards (16m), and 55 yards (50m) at the Potters coal horizon and a lodge made at 77 yards (70m). Water was a big problem and there were 3 pumping stations, Dunston, Nesfield and Monkwood. Bull engine erected, 18 inch (0.45m) bucket, 8 inch (0.20m) rising main, 416 gpm (gallons per minute) equal to a continuous flow of 173gpm. Winding engines by Yates of Blackburn, 2 horizontal cylinders, 26 inch (0.66m) dia x 4ft (1.2m) stroke, one plain drum 12 ft (3.65m) dia x 5ft 9in (1.75m) wide, raises 2 x 8cwt tubs on one deck, giving 800 tons per 8½ hours. The ropes were charcoal iron 1¼” (0.03m) dia with King’s detaching hooks. No2 shaft was for pump work although men could be wound in an emergency. Haulage by 2 steam engines driving endless rope 1,100 yards (1,006m) long and tubs hauled 10 to 12 in a group at 1½ mph. On the surface a Birbeck coal washer giving 250 tons in 9 hours. 14 screens 5 ft (1.5m) wide x 22 ft (6.7m) long. 116 beehive ovens on the surface and a Guibal fan 40ft (12m) dia x 12 ft (3.65m) wide giving 90,000 cu ft per min at 1¾ inches (0.044m) water gauge. The Silkstone was worked which was an excellent gas and coking coal.

Underground coaling by holing made in 14 inch (0.36m) band of clod, middle coal wedged down then 12 inch (0.30m) band of clod got, then top coal brought down afterwards, but bottom coal wedged up or blown up by gunpowder. Gates were 30 yards (27m) apart and 3 to 5 tubs taken up and down stalls by ponies. Each gateway has 2ft 6in (0.76m) top stone taken down for height, and utilised for gate side packs. 600 Marsaut safety lamps were in use.


Newbold colliery (North Derbyshire): 100 tons per day produced from Silkstone seam. Pumped 68gpm giving a continuous flow of 28gpm. There was a haulage engine at bottom of shaft, steam power from one Lancashire boiler at 45 lbs pressure.


Nesfield Pumping Station about 1¼ miles west of Albert colliery. Engine, a beam non-condensing type with 12 inch (0.30m) dia cylinders x 3ft (0.91m) stroke, geared 1:4. Engine raises 2 columns from 65 yards (59m) deep with a 9 inch (0.23m) bucket 6 ft (1.82m) stroke operates 12 hours a day giving a continuous feed of 220gpm.


Dunston Pumping Station about 1¼ miles north of Albert colliery. There was a Cornish pumping engine with 70 inch (1.78m) dia cylinder, 8½ ft (2.6m) stroke, 3 valves with condenser, generating steam at 45lb pressure. Upper lift 18½ inch (0.47m) bucket, engine worked 12 hours a day at the rate of 3 upstrokes per minute raising 296gpm equal to a feeder of
148 gpm (gallons per minute).

Bailey Brook

Bailey Brook (Butterley Co) worked coal on the longwall principle (adopted from earliest times in Derbyshire), with slight improvements, 60 to 80 yards (55 to 73m) between gates. Deep Hard worked on face coals and Deep Soft worked on end coals with better results. Gunpowder used to bring down coals. Output was 680 tons in 8¼ hours, 1 tub in 30 seconds, 12 cwts from Deep Soft, and 14cwts from Deep Hard. Balance rope to cages. Guibal fan used for ventilation, 36ft dia (11m) x 12ft (3.65m) wide with 45 revs per minute giving 135,000 cfm (cubic feet per minute) at 16/10 inches water gauge.
12 surface boilers 40ft x 5ft (12.2 x 1.52m) at 50lb pressure.


Fatal Accidents In 1894 Included

Silver Hill a horse driver (boy..?) was killed in the Low Main seam workings in April 1894
Heanor William Whitney (34) 16 Apr 1894
Bulwell Alfred Robinson (30) was killed on 30 Aug 1894.
Both pits in Nottinghamshire. A list of accidents where known is shown at all pits when that pit is closed.

Silver Hill

The colliers at Silver Hill (Stanton Iron Co) were forced to accept 3d (1¼p) or 4d (1⅔p) a ton less in June and that was followed by a further reduction of 10% in August. This gave a getting rate of 1s 4d (6⅔p) a ton. In October the men asked for a 1d (⅓p) increase in rates but this was refused and the men withdrew their labour, but after 5 weeks on strike returned to work on 29th November 1894 with an amicable agreement.

Brierley Hill And Skegby Pits

In 1894 a section of the Top Hard workings was left off at Brierley Hill (Skegby Colliery Co), after advancing and flanking boreholes had been bored forward in 1882 to 1884 from headings driven towards the old Skegby Wharf pit workings of uncertain position. Maybe it was thought prudent to abandon the idea of working the coal in that district, remembering the Molyneux disaster of only 25 years before. Notice was given to Messrs Burton Sons and Co regarding water in the roof.

The Wharf pits at 92 yards (84m) and 86 yards (78m) deep were waterlogged. A gang line led from the Brierley pit to a coal wharf at Sutton Lammas. The Skegby Colliery Company was bought out by the Sutton Colliery Company and the name of the mine was changed from Brierley Hill to Sutton Colliery, although locally it would be still referred to as Brierley until it closed in 1989 and the name would also be kept on in perpetuity when Brierley Park was created on the old dirt tip in 1994.

Pye Bridge

James Oakes and Co re-named their pit sunk at Pye Bridge in 1874-1875 to Pye Hill No1 and 2. There were 356 men underground in the Tupton and Silkstone seams and 68 on the surface. The pit had been known previously as
New Silkstone colliery.

The Coal Ring

The Pinxton Coal Co claimed to have broken through the trammels of the coal ring in 1894 and supplied coal direct to depots without the intervention of middlemen, and of course without the necessary inflated prices.


Prime Minister Earl of Rosebery (Liberal) 1894-1895.

National Minimum Wage Introduced

From 1st August 1894 the national minimum wage was brought in, but in theory this was the 1888 wage plus 30% addition. It was agreed that this wage rate would not be changed until the end of 1895 when there could be a decrease or an increase in the rates. Also the Coal Mines (Checkweighers) Act 1894 came into force. The checkweighman was appointed by the coal getters to checkweigh the tubs of coal weighed by the weigher appointed by the mine owner.


The Act made it an offence to interfere with the appointment of checkweighers.


The inspection of quarries for safety etc was added to the list in 1894. Inspectors had been given the power to inspect other metalliferous mines from 1872 and slate mines from 1882 as per coal mines from 1850.

Visit To West Hallam

A visit to West Hallam colliery (West Hallam Colliery Co) in November detailed the following: (FN Smith of Wingfield Park). Thomas Williamson, Agent and Manager, plus 2 Assistant Managers. There were 5 shafts -
Wingfield, No2 Wingfield, No3, No4 and High Main. Deep Soft seam inferior 4ft (1.22m) used for packs and 6ft (1.82m) used for house coal, Deep Hard 4ft 6in (1.37m) good used for house and steam coal, High Main or Piper 4ft 2in (1.27m) good house and steam, Tupton or Furnace 4ft 3in (1.30m) all house coal, Kilburn 5ft 2in (1.57m) best house coal but weak roof. Longwall working 750 yards (685m), 17 gateways, 44 yards (40m) apart, 3 yards (2.75m) wide with pack walls and intermediate walls 3 yards (2.75m) wide at 4 yards (3.65m) apart. The workings was troubled by faults of 22 yards (20m), 16 yards (15m), 32 yards (30m), and 16 yards (15m) all to the west. Bonnetted Clanny safety lamps used. Screening done by hand from tubs in sorting shed. In No3 and No4 shafts 1 tub of 12 cwt in each cage, winding 500 tons in 8½ hours for a tub was raised and changed in 20 seconds. Winding ropes plough steel and conductors pitch pine. Pumping through a 12” (0.30m) rising main. Electrically operated haulage and lighting in the pit, with a dynamo at No4 shaft. Endless rope haulage fed by ponies and horses. Pit bottom and 100 yards (91m) inbye lit by incandescent lamps.

No1 and No2 shafts – drum 14 ft (4.25m) dia x 6ft (1.83m) wide. 4 tubs of 12cwt each raised in each of 2 decks from 385 yards (352m) in 40 seconds giving 800 tons a shift. Ormerod hooks on the ropes. Ventilation was effected by a Chandler type double inlet fan at No1 shaft, giving 125,000 cu ft per min at 2.8” (0.071m) w.g. (water gauge). 7 Lancashire boilers for steam raising. At the High Main shaft there was a cast iron heavy duty winding engine by Worsley Mesnes Ltd.

Collieries Sunk or Opened in 1894

  • Brimington (SM Lancaster) Potters seam, adit and air pit, Magnetic meridian Nov 1894, Surveyor William Deakin Wadsworth
  • Dale colliery (Robert Angle Dent), adit to 2 Foot or Sough coal, Aug 1894
  • Fireclay Mine No4 (J Knowles and Co Ltd) near Burton-on-Trent sunk 231 feet (70.5m), 193’ 9” (59m) to fireclay, coal 1’ 0” (0.30m), shale 1’ 0” (0.30m), marl 4’ 6” (1.37m), fireclay 1’ 3” (0.38m), coal 8” (0.20m), bottle clay 2’ 6” (0.76m), coal 3’ 6” (1.07m), Surveyor John T Hurt (cert ?)
  • Kilburn (William Drury Lowe) start 14th Feb, (but see abandonment 1894 met old works)
  • Kilburne (The Kilburne Colliery Co) Thin coal, surface 258 feet (78m) above sea level
  • South Wingfield (South Wingfield Colliery Co) continued re-opening the mine with 24 men underground and 18 on the surface
  • Tibshelf No3/4 (Babbington Co)
  • Warsop sinking began (Staveley Coal and Iron Co).

Collieries Closed in 1894

  • Ashley (CE Rhodes and Sons) 12 yards (11m) deep, at Ashley Field, Killamarsh, (Derbyshire), High Hazel 4’ 0” (1.22m), 24 Mar 1894, Surveyor Fisher and Son, 3 heads surrounded by old works from Delph ? Arthur H Stokes Inspector 16th Oct 1894
  • Barlow Commonside (John Booker and Co) Blackshale, start 3 Nov 1893, abandoned 31 Dec 1893, shaft 26 yards (23.75m), met old works, signed 30 Jun 1894
  • Brickyard pit at Heanor (W Wrigley and AW Claxton) discontinued the Top Hard workings 3 u/g, 3 s/f
  • Brickyard Staveley (Deep Soft)
  • Bridge Lane (JW Bowker, formerly William Osborne to 1891) Old Whittington, Deep Hard smithies 12” (0.30m), white dirt 24” (0.61m), smithies 10” (0.25m), bottom bed 4” (0.10m) black dirt, 24” (0.61m) best hards, 7” (0.18m) holing dirt, 20” (0.50m) coal, total 8’ 2” (2.48m) coal and dirt, and Piper 12” (0.30m) coal top bed, 27” (0.69m) white dirt, 14” (0.36m) middle bed, 11” (0.28m) holing, 18” (0.45m) bottom, total coal and dirt 6’ 10” (2.08m), DC shaft 5 feet diameter (1.52m), 14 yards (13m) and UC shaft 6 feet diameter (1.82m), 26 yards (24m), Manager and Surveyor William Lowe
  • Brushes (James Hawksley, then N Buchan and Sons), Potters Deep Hard, shaft 26⅓ yards (24m), Surveyor WB Hague for Alma Colliery 1894
  • Bull Bridge (Bull Bridge Brick Co), adit and shaft 15 yards (13.75m) to Belper Lawn or Alton seam, 2’ 6” (0.76m), Surveyor S Alsop, Pinxton, 10th July 1894, coal worked in 2 quarries adjacent
  • Cadley Hill, shown, (Hall’s Collieries Ltd) Stockingers Mine 183 yards 1 foot (167.5m) at No2 and No3 shafts closed owing to want of market Sep 1894, Manager George J German, Surveyor William Sword
  • Calow Green drift (Joseph Springthorpe), Silkstone, Manager Jos Springthorpe (637 service), 1in4 drift from day hole from outcrop, start mining Oct 1893, met old works, 2 shafts, UC 6’ 0” (1.83m) dia, 34 feet (10.3m) deep, DC 7 feet (2.13m) dia, 90 feet (27.5m) deep, closed 29th Nov 1894
  • Dale (Robert Angle Dent), Killamarsh, adit started
  • Drake House (Edmund Reddish and Co) near Beighton, owner of coal John Jubb, closed due to water and coal too thin at 2 feet thick (0.61m), High Hazels or possibly Swallow Wood or Haigh Moor or Deep Hard, 7/2, too thin and roof full of water, abandoned 30th Dec, neighbouring Earl Manver’s coal
  • Dunston Basset (E Charlton) Pottery Lane, St John’s Road, Newbold Moor, coal 4’ 6” (1.37m), small heads, Surveyor Ernest A Coates, Avenue House, Newbold
  • Fireclay Mine No4 (Messrs J Knowles and Co Ltd) Wooden Box, Surveyor John T Hart
  • Grove, (SM Lancaster) Newbold, the 5’ 0” (1.5m) Dunston (Deep Soft) seam workings were stopped Mar 1894, 2/1, abandoned March, some coal and clay got by openwork, Surveyor William Deakin Wadsworth
  • Grass Moor (Alfred Barnes) 2nd Waterloo 5’ 2” (1.57m), Major Benjamin Bamford, 6 Sep 1876, Thos Evans Inspector 6 Sep 76
  • Holbrook (J and G Wells Ltd) Eckington, Silkstone shaley coal 8” (0.20m), coal 2’ 3” (0.68m), dirt 2’ 4” (0.71m), coal 1’ 10” (0.56m), shafts 287.5m (263m) deep, dip 12” to 1 yard (1in3), plan received by Arthur H Stokes Mines Inspector 16 Feb 1894
  • Hollingwood (JH Gosling’s old pit) Barlborough 71 yards (65m) Top Hard closed by Mr Fred Gosling, section roof white bind, soft coal 7½” (0.19m), Harroty hard coal 6½” (0.16m), Gee 2” (0.05m), soft coal 2” (0.05m), main hard coal 2’ 0” (0.61m), soft coal 8” (0.20m), Branch 9½” (0.24m), soft coal 1½” (0.04m), clunch floor, saleable 3’ 11” (1.19m), non-saleable 11” (0.28m), plan signed by Arthur H Stokes Inspector 28th June 1894
  • Kilburne colliery (William Drury Lowe Esq), under order of Master Kaye, Mickley Thin abandoned after only a few weeks due to explorations revealed old works from Kilburne colliery
  • Locoford (Lockford or Lockoford) (T Harrison) and W Coke owner of field, Chesterfield Dunston coal, Arthur H Stokes HMI 16th Oct 1894
  • Long Close drift 40 yards (36.5m) (JH Green and F Green) Whittington, Silkstone or Blackshale, closed 14th April 1894, Manager George S Bragge (683), Undermanager W Fieldsend, Day hole from outcrop worked to just short of old level from Foxley Oaks, signed JH Green and Fred Green, C Everson Surveyor, Sheepbridge
    18th Sep 1894
  • Manners (Manners Colliery Co) Low Main, Manager WE Walker, finished 20 Apr 1894, not being profitable
  • Marehay (Butterley Co) complex closed 5th Feb 1894, FC Corfield Agent, Arthur H Stokes Inspector
  • Markham No2 (Staveley Coal and Iron Co), Deep Soft, 10 Nov 1894, Surveyor JA Verner, plan drawn by Stanton West Lake
  • MexboroBog and Wink (Butterley Co Ltd) Selston, Top Hard, tops 1’ 0” (0.30m), Rifler 5” (0.13m), hards 1’ 9” (0.53m), soft 1’ 3” (0.38m), total 4’ 5” (1.35m), N pit 153 yards (140m), S pit pumping, finished after 33 or 39 years, 9th Oct and abandoned 16th Nov 1894, uneconomical, Agent Frederick Channer Corfield
  • Norburns Engine pit (...?)
  • Oakthorpe Daisy pit (...?) (old pit now re-named), 107 yards (98m) deep, Main coal - top coal 1’ 3” (0.38m), hard 5’ 0” (1.52m), bright coal 2’ 6” (0.76m), spire coal 1’ 0” (0.30m), bright 2’ 0” (0.61m), fireclay 3’ 0” (0.91m), finished Christmas 1894, plan received Arthur H Stokes Inspector of Mines 18th Feb 1895
  • Oakthorpe Springfield, sinking deeper to next seam abandoned due to water and soft strata, belonging Henry P Skidmore and Co, 1 Mar 1894
  • Ormonde (John Beardsley) Langley Mill, leased from Butterley Co, Top Hard seam, met old hollows, 8 Mar 1894, Surveyor John Holbrook
  • Brickyard, AH Stokes Inspector 8th Mar 1894
  • Rowson Green (Kilburne Colliery Co), Kilburne coal, trial pit 7 yards (6m), no coal, 1893 Foot road in and UC shaft 3 yards (2.75m), working close to surface, met old works, abandoned Dec 1894
  • St Johns (Saint Johns) (Staveley Silkstone Colliery Co Ltd), Two Foot seam at 50 yards (45.75m) deep shaft and adit drift form yard and DC shaft 41 yards (37.5m) some distance away, coal 1’ 9” (0.53m) closed through bad trade, Manager EE Booker, Surveyor William D Wadsworth, abandoned 9th July 1894
  • Spital (OE Mason) Potters, 4’ 6” (1.37m), air pits and mouth of adit worked coal uphill towards outcrop at 1in3 rise, saleable coal, finished Midsummer 1894, William D Wadsworth Surveyor, Oct 1892, Arthur H Stokes Inspector received plan 7th Sep 1894, (old Spittall and Boyers pits lay nearby)
  • Temple Normanton colliery (Temple Normanton Colliery Co), sunk 1876, Manager Richard Hill
  • Westwick (Thomas Bradshaw) Brampton Lower Bed 1’ 10” (0.56m) one pit 6 feet (1.82m) dia, 13 yards (12m) and another 7’ 6” (2.29m) dia, 19½ yards (17.75m) deep at Frithwood Farm, WT Howard Surveyor, Arthur H Stokes Inspector 6th Sep 1894
  • Victoria (No2) (John Hazard) New Brimington, Blackshale, adit from outcrop and one shaft, abandoned 4th Dec 1894
  • Westwick (Thomas Bradshaw), Brampton, Brampton Lower seam coal 1’ 10” (0.56m), open hole, pit 13 yards (12m) at 6 ft (1.8m) dia and pit 19⅔ yards (18m) 7’ 6” (2.29m) dia, Surveyor WT Howard.
  • Wheeldon Mill (SM Lancaster) and Monkwood No2 pits (Monkwood Colliery Co) were stood, as was
  • West Staveley (J Sims). (20)
  • At Hucknall Torkard pit, (Nottinghamshire) the Deep Hard roads were abandoned, Arthur H Stokes Inspector examined the plans 2nd May 1894.

Potsherd Plans Mislaid

Potsherd colliery, Church Gresley, although abandoned in 1877, the original plan was sent to Holmesfield but mislaid.
The original plan was copied by H Richardson Hewitt, Inspector on 1st May 1894 and signed by Arthur H Stokes Inspector 2nd May 1894.

Sutton Colliery

Brierley Hill, Skegby (later Sutton Colliery) (Nottinghamshire) Dunsill seam (top brights 11” (0.28m), spires 1’ 5” (0.43m), bottom brights 8” (0.20m), batt 3” (0.08m), fireclay 10½” (0.27m), total 4’ 1½” (1.26m), closed 1894. No1 shaft 201 yards (184m) to Top Hard, 2 staple pits 28½ yards (26m) to Dunsill, working towards old Skegby colliery 120 yards (110m) to Dunsill seam, probably thought prudent to stop working faces in that direction due to unknown position of old workings, although headings were driven forward for a few yards (metres), Surveyor William H Sankey 1st Dec 1894, abandonment plan received by Arthur H Stokes Mines Inspector on 3rd Dec 1894.

Markham No2

The Deep Soft at Markham No2 (Staveley Coal and Iron Co) 532 yards (486.5m) deep was stopped first on 24th June 1893 then again on 18th Nov 1894, Surveyor JA Verner for Staveley Works.

Guilty Of Breaking An Agreement

A case was heard at the Divisional Court where Messrs Small were found guilty of breaking an agreement to maintain pumping of water from their workings at Kilburn colliery and in doing so caused Drury-Lowe’s colliery to flood.

The Kilburne Colliery Co had gone into liquidation in 1893.

Alfreton Colliery

In December the Alfreton Colliery Pit Hill (tip) was on fire caused by combustion of iron pyrites and small inferior coal.

Short Time Working

Throughout 1894 at most pits there was short time working. The owners insisted that the men attended work every day Monday to Saturday whether there was a full shifts work or not and many men would find that although they had made 6½ shifts they would only be paid for 3.

Fatal Accidents

Included: -
Mexboro’ John Fulwood (45) 3 Dec 1864, explosion
New Foundation (Birchwood) Thomas Smith (60) 24 Nov 1894.

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Pit Terminology - Glossary

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